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Temprature and breathing

 ? how to take the temperature

The places, which can be used to take temperature, are

rectum or vagina (approximately 0.5 degree centigrade higher

in vagina).

1- The thermometer should be sterilized by disinfectant before use.

2- Wet the thermometer with cold water or put some petroleum jelly (Vaseline) on the end, (especially in case of small pup and kitten)زo make it more slippery.

3- It should be well shaken before recording of temperature to bring the mercury column below the lowest point, (If the reading is not below 36°C, shake the mercury down to the bulb, Use flicking motions, taking care not to hit the thermometer on anything).

4- Insert the thermometer in a rotational way and gentle manner. Care should be taken so that the bulb of the thermometer remains in contact with the rectal mucous membrane.

5- The thermometer should be kept in site for at least 3-5 minutes.

6- Pull out the thermometer, clean it and read the number. Read the value to define and explain a state of fever, hypothermia, and febrile or non-febrile animals.

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Types of respiration

1- Costal respiration: In this type of respiration thoracic muscles are mainly involved and the movement of the rib cage is more prominent. It is seen in dogs and cats.


2- Abdominal respiration: This type of respiration is seen in ruminants viz cattle, goat, sheep and yak. Here the abdominal muscles are involved and movement of the abdominal wall is noticed.


3- Costo- abdominal respiration: In this type of respiration muscles of both thorax and abdomen are involved so the movement of the ribs and the abdominal wall are noticed.



The respiration rate is measured through counting of either contraction or expansion of the thorax and abdomen which can be observed during clinical examination. A method for respiration rate taking Includes.



Respiration taking


Inspection: Stand behind and to one side of the animal, and observe the movement of the thoracic and abdominal areas of the body.

Palpation: Put one hand in front of the nostril, feel the exchange of the gas; or put one hand on the lung area or the thorax and feel the respiratory movements.

Auscultation: Use stethoscope, listen to the respiration sound in the trachea or lung area.

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